Constructionism learning skills for Thai vocational student internship teachers:  Comparing conceptual models

Sirikanya Netrthanon
Doctoral student
Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang
Bangkok, Thailand

Sirirat Petsangsri
Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang
Bangkok, Thailand

Paitoon Pimdee
Associate Professor
Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang
Bangkok, Thailand

Reference to this paper should be made as follows:

Netrthanon, S., Petsangsri, S., & Pimdee, P. (2018). Constructionism learning skills for Thai vocational student internship teachers: Comparing conceptual models. Asian International Journal of Social Sciences, 17(4), xx – xx.


Creative Commons License
All works licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Abstract: This research’s objective was to develop a constructionism learning skills model for Thai vocational student internship teachers. The researchers developed a teaching process model by observing experimental teaching methods of Thai university student internship teachers. The data were collected via 5 steps including observing the teaching methods of student internship teachers, analysis and synthesis of the data, interview of the facilitators, and the collection of input from the use of focus groups which were experts in constructionism learning theory, learning processes, and learning innovation. The results became a new model of constructionism learning skills, which was entitled the ‘CDCD Model’ which consisted of four stages including learning to Create, learning to Design, learning to Construct, and learning to Develop. This model is a useful tool for vocational internship student teachers as they progress to their next step in their professional and educational development.

Keywords: internship student teachers, learning process, Seymour Papert, TVET, vocational education


Akbulut, Y. (2007). Implications of two well-known models for instructional designers in distance education: Dick-Carey versus Morrison-Ross-Kemp. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 8(2). Retrieved from

Andrew, D. H., & Goodson, L. A. (1980). A comparative analysis of models of instructional Design. Journal of Instructional Development, 3(4).

Barden, R. A., & Hacker, M. (1993). Living with Technology. Albany, NY, USA: Delmar Publishers, Inc. Retrieved from

Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: reach every student in every class every Day. ASCD and ISTE.  Retrieved from

Brown, J.W., & Brown, N. (1984). Trends in instructional technology research. Educational Media Yearbook 1984. Littleton, Co., USA: Libraries Unlimited. Retrieved from

Chan, N. N., Walker, C., & Gleaves, A. (2015). An exploration of students’ lived experiences of using smartphones in diverse learning contexts using a hermeneutic phenomenological     approach. Computers & Education, 82, 96 – 106.

Chuang, Y-T. (2015). SSCLS: A Smartphone-Supported Collaborative Learning System.  Telematics and Informatics, 32(3), 463 – 474.

Davies, R. S., Dean, D. L., & Ball, N. (2013). Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educational Technology Research & Development, 61(4), 563 – 580.

Dick, W., Carey, l., & Carey, J. O. (2014). The Systematic Design of Instruction.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

enGauge (2003). 21st Century Skills for 21st Century Learners. Retrieved from

Forest, E. (2016, February 14). Kemp Design Model. Educational Technology. Retrieved from

Gerlach, V. S. (1984). Trends in instructional technology research. In J. W. Brown & S. N. Brown (Eds.), Educational Media Yearbook 1984 (pp. 21 – 29). Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited.

Halili, S. H. & Zainuddin, Z. (2015). Flipping the classroom: What we know and what we don’t. The Online Journal of Distance Education and e-Learning, 3(1). Retrieved from

Hannum, W. (2005). Instructional systems development: A 30 Year Retrospective.  Edcuational Technology, July-August. Retrieved from

Howitt, C. & Pegrum, M. (2015). Implementing a flipped classroom approach in postgraduate education: An unexpected journey into pedagogical redesign.  Australasian Journal of Educational Technology (AJET), 31(4). 458 – 469. Retrieved from

Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Estrada, V., Freeman, A., and Hall, C. (2016).  NMC Horizon Report: 2016 Higher Education Edition. Austin, Texas, USA: The New  Media Consortium. Retrieved from

Keengwe, J. & Onchwari, G. (2015). Handbook of Research on Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom Model in the Digital Age. IGI Global Publishers.

Khammanee, T. (2005). Research program in whole school approach development. Bangkok, Thailand: Pattana Khunnaparb Wichakarn Publishing.

Khammani, T. (2007). Science of teaching: Cognitive processes in order to learn effectively. Bangkok, Thailand: Chulalongkorn University Press.

Khammani, T. (2013). Teaching science: The body of knowledge for effective learning process.   Bangkok, Thailand: Chulalongkorn University Press.

LEAP (2007). College learning for the new global century. National Leadership Council for Liberal Education and America’s Promise (LEAP). Association of American Colleges and Universities. Retrieved from

Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. Journal of Economic Education, 31(1), 30 – 43.

Lyddon, P. A. (2015). The flip side of flipped language teaching. In F. Helm, L. Bradley, M. Guarda, & S. Thouësny (Eds), Critical CALL – Proceedings of the 2015 EUROCALL Conference.  Dublin, Ireland:

Miller, A. (2014, February 20). Teachers are learning designers. Edutopia. Retrieved from

Naphatthalung, N. (2014). Using the CIPPA Model with the Thai Teacher T.V. Program on the learning management ability of English teachers. 12th International Conference on Thai Studies, April 2014, University of Sydney. Retrieved from

NESDB (2014). The Eleventh National Economic and Social Development Plan (2012-2016). Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board. Office of the Prime Minister. Retrieved from

Noonoo, S. (2012, June 20). Flipped Learning Founders Set the Record Straight. The  Journal.  Retrieved from

OECD (2015). New approach needed to deliver on technology’s potential in schools. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved from   

P21 Educators (2016). Resources for educators. The Partnership for 21st Century Learning. Retrieved from

Pappas, C. (2015, November 24). How to apply the Dick and Carey Model in eLearning: 9 steps for eLearning professionals. eLearning Industry. Retrieved from

Scott, C. L. (2015). The futures of learning 2: What kind of learning for the 21st Century? UNESCO report. Retrieved from

Songkram, N., Khlaisang, J., Puthaseranee, B., &  Likhitdamrongkiat, M. (2015). E-Learning as  a means to improve the quality of higher education. SHS Web of Conferences, 28. Retrieved from

Yamane, T. (1973). Statistics: An introductory analysis (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Harper and Row.