Flipping the classroom: Dilemmas and challenges for a 21st Century classroom


Napatcha Pradubthong
Doctoral Candidate
Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology
Bangkok 10520, Thailand

Sirirat Petsangsri
Assistant Professor Dr.
Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology
Bangkok 10520, Thailand

Paitoon Pimdee
Associate Professor Dr.
Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology
Bangkok 10520, Thailand

Reference to this paper should be made as follows:

He, K. (2017). Flipping the classroom: Dilemmas and challenges for a 21st Century classroom. Asian International Journal of Social Sciences, 17(4), 75 – 94.


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             As the pace of changes to the global economic, social, political, technological, energy and environmental landscape continue to rapidly evolve; human resource development through quality education is crucial to social and economic development of the region. For this reason, many developing countries such as Thailand must accelerate reform and the methods to improve the teaching and learning process which promotes a growing youth workforce which has the potential to cope with rapid and technological change. Research was therefore undertaken to discover the challenges and current status in solving problems and implementing instructor teaching management. ATLAS.ti 7TM software was used to analyze the results from the five software engineering course instructors with analysis of the 204 surveyed students done by use of SPSS software.  Results showed the difficulty and complexity of implementing modern teaching techniques for a 21st Century classroom in traditional Thai university environments due to typical class sizes (80 students), severe time constraints on instructors, instructor inability to prepare and find appropriate, multi-media Thai material, and the cultural influences on student participation. Furthermore, data concluded there was an inability of students to ask instructors questions, participate in outside group projects, and prepare properly before classes.  Student motivation for learning was also deemed as lacking as were critical thinking and problem solving skills. Results from the input also found that instructor’s teacher learning management were not diverse in their process of knowledge transfer, continued to rely on traditional classroom techniques, and lacked an ability to motivate students which developed student learning and innovation skills.


Keywords: Asean, innovation skills, learning skills, problems on learning,Thai undergraduate students



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