A social impact assessment using a SWOT-based framework to determine the factors for free Bangkok public bus transportation

Samart Deebhijarn

Faculty of Administration and Management
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL)
1 Chalong Krung, Thanon Chalong Krung, Lat Krabang
Bangkok 10520, Thailand

Puris Sornsaruht

Faculty of Administration and Management
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL)
1 Chalong Krung, Thanon Chalong Krung, Lat Krabang
Bangkok 10520, Thailand

Reference to this paper should be made as follows:

Deebhijarn, S., & Sornsaruht, P. (2016). A social impact assessment using a SWOT-based framework to determine the factors for free Bangkok public bus transportation. Asian International Journal of Social Sciences, 16(4), 27 – 49.
https://doi.org/10.29139/aijss.20160402

Creative Commons License
All works licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Abstract

The study analysed the social return on investment of free bus transportation of 1,727 commuters within the Bangkok metropolitan area through use of a social impact assessment analysis as well as a SWOT model with the aim at reducing social exclusion through the provisioning of high quality community transport and commuter services. Research showed that factors contributing to the issues included the lack of real-world planning and budgeting, a lack of education performance as well as quality service. Furthermore, the study determined that efforts should be made for management development, finding funding sources, and providing better service to a commuter consumer whose income is limited as a benefit to society.

Keywords: commuter, consumer, cost reduction, NPV, passenger, social rewards.

 

References

Bangkok Population 2016. (2016). 2016 World Population Review. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/zql475c

Barrella, E.M. (2012). Strategic Planning for a Sustainable Transportation System: A SWOT-Based Framework for Assessment and Implementation Guidance for Transportation Activities. PhD Thesis [pdf file]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/h7hous2

Berke, P.R., Godschalk, D.R., & Kaiser, E.J. (2006). Urban Land Use Planning, (5th ed.). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Berman, K, Knight, J. & Case, J. (2013). Financial Intelligence, Revised Edition: A Manager’s Guide to Knowing What the Numbers Really Mean. Harvard Business Review Press. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/z5kqbvu

BMTA Annual Report 2014. (2014). [Web page]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/zfjpnh8

BMTA. (2016). Bangkok Mass Transit Authority (BMTA) History [Web page]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/zp7tocq

ESCAP. (2007). Sustainable Infrastructure in Asia: Overview and Proceedings. Seoul Initiative Policy Forum on Sustainable Infrastructure. Seoul, Korea, September 6–8, 2006. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.

Gallo, A. (2014, November 19). A Refresher on Net Present Value, Harvard Business Review [Web page]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/gsleuze

Goldman, A.E. & MacDonald, S.S. (1987). The group depth interview. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Griff, M. (2014). Professional Accounting Essays and Assignments, Lulu Press, Inc.

Ho, V. (2016, March 22). Bangkok is the second-most congested city in the world. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/z7joljh

Humphrey, A.S. (2005). SWOT analysis for management consulting. SRI Alumni Association Newsletter, SRI International, USA [Web Page]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ha7kysa

Ieda, H. (Ed.). (2010). Sustainable Urban Transport in an Asian Context, Springer.

Khemapech, I. & Kidbunjong, L. (2015). Analysis of Excessive Cost of Overlapped Bus Route System in Bangkok. NIDA Case Research Journal. 7(1). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/zf7qafz

Kotler, P. (2003), Marketing Management, (11th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.,

MacDonald, M. (2013). Valuing the social impacts of public transport Final report, UK Department of Transport. [Web page]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/h62cgua

Moore, D.S. & McCabe. G.P. (2006). Introduction to the Practice of Statistics. (5th Ed.). Freeman.

Nicholls, J., Lawlor, E., Neitzert, E. & Goodspeed, T. (2012). A guide to Social Return on Investment. SROI Network [Web page]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/jtrz7pw

OTP. (2013). Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning, Ministry of Transport, Transport and Traffic Statistics and Information-Thailand, August 2013. [Web page]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/h4hvfvq

Sornsaruht, P., & Deebhijarn, S. (2016). Free train transportation in Thailand: A financial SWOT analysis on its social impact.  Asian International Journal of Social Sciences, 16(1), 11 – 33.

Sputnic. (n/d). Vilnius, Lithuania SWOT Analysis. [Web page]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/juxdngo

ThaiPBS. (2015, February 5) Bangkok ranked among world’s top 10 cities with worst traffic. Thai PBS [web site]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/h7zoqo9

The Nation. (2012, December 17). Traffic in Bangkok set to worsen in 2014, official warns [online newspaper]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/zzm864h

Therakomen, S. (2001). Chapter 4: Public Transportation Services in Bangkok. In An Urban  Design Project for Supporting the Use of Waterways in Modern Bangkok (pp. 90-100). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/h4vmgyz

Thongsuk, P. (2013). Operational Cost Comparisons between Bangkok Mass Transit Authority and Private Bus Operator. Independent Study. Sripatum University. (in Thai) UNWHO. (2015). Global status report on road safety 2015. United Nations World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/oxk5ruv

Willoughby, C. (2000). Singapore’s Experience in Managing Motorization, and its Relevance to  Other Countries. Discussion Paper TWU-43. Washington, DC: The World Bank.